My Take on Media Franchising, Basic Franchising & Sharing Worlds


Media franchising is a topic that is extremely significant in the field of economics and it is something that is done by many varieties of businesses. One kind of business that franchising can be seen in is the film industry. The ultimate Avengers (2012) film demonstrated franchising by bringing together different filmmakers for projects market by marvel studios, which would include films such as the Iron Man films, Thor (2011), The Incredible Hulk (2008) and Captain America (2011). According to Derek Johnson in his book, Media Franchising: Creative License and Collaboration in the Culture Industries, the filmmakers for the different Marvel projects that would crossover in the Avengers film didn’t exchange works too often, which was interesting since these filmmakers are aware they are working for the same franchise. Johnson writes:

“Franchising, therefore, creates unique circumstances in which to consider the nature of creative identity in industrial contexts, since the territory in which creativity occurs is by definition a shared one and networked creators must negotiate and give meaning to that sociality in their practice” (Johnson, 108).

The Avengers film with its story plot and the process that was put into producing this crossover film demonstrates the concept of sharing worlds. Johnson believes that there are limitations to franchising with the use of creativity to share worlds. Johnson says:

“Any storyteller arguably builds a world in establishing narrative settings, which suggests that world-building would not be a creative phenomenon exclusive to franchising. Furthermore, not all franchise exchanges occur within the production of fictional narratives, so theories of franchised creativity should not overestimate the significance of these narrative frames” (Johnson, 108).

ImageIf moviegoers or people who are engaged or interested in the film industry are lead to believe franchising only happens in the process of producing fiction films based on what they have seen then they are being misled. This is the point Johnson is trying to make and it makes perfect sense, which is why we must also pay attention to the concept of “world-building” (Johnson, 108-109). World-building is the term that many scholars have chosen to use to characterize the practices of industrial creativity (Johnson, 108). Anyone or any business doesn’t need to be invested in franchising to be creative in terms of bringing multiple ideas or settings in a single entity. In franchising the franchisees and their laborers do things a little differently in other areas even though they are working for the same business. Johnson goes in-depth with the discussion of the role of media franchising by saying that “media franchising does not end with the building of a world; instead, worlds are continually used and dynamically altered by creative laborers who may or may not have played any role in their genesis” (Johnson, 108). Even McDonald’s for example, which is not obviously a media franchise but still a franchise, is altered in other countries in order to appeal to the people there and it maybe the idea of the franchise or franchiser. McDonald’s in other foreign countries have different appeals and when I visited Dubai during the month of Ramadan I saw McDonald’s advertisements showing food products for when people open their fast.

X-Men-Days-Of-Future-Past-X-Men-Days-Of-Future-PastJohnson talks about how franchising is when “creative resources are exchanged across contexts of production, where sequels, spin-offs and tie-ins ask multiple production communities to work in successive or parallel relation to one another” (Johnson, 109).  The Avengers-themed sequels that are being released currently and two films have already been released, Iron Man 3 (2013) andThor: The Dark World (2013), and another is on the way, Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014). These films are obviously part of the second crossover sequel, Avengers 2. Once again the reason this production of Marvel is a perfect example to Johnson’s take on media franchising is because Marvel studios is having multiple filmmakers work in “successive or parallel relation to one another.” Marvel’s inter-industrial franchising has always come up with ideas on how to market key characters within their stories. The character Spiderman for example was used in a variety of alternatives such as showing up as a T-shirt, as comic books, as electronic games, as movies and soon as a television show (Johnson, 95). The Marvel characters are always what are precious to their franchising aspects because over the years there have been character-based comics, television shows and movies. There have also been remakes of certain Marvel character based movies. Marvel did have its struggles in the 1990s and they had to start licensing other distributors for their projects (Johnson, 95-96). Johnson even said “Indirect license fees alone could prove more profitable for Marvel than direct comics revenue” (Johnson, 96). The first X-Men and Spider-Manfilms are perfect examples of licensing because Marvel sold the rights to 20th Century Fox for only few hundred thousand dollars for the first X-Men film and they received $10 million from Sony Pictures for the rights to make the first Spider-Man film (Johnson, 96). Doesn’t seem like a bad investment for Marvel licensing other distributors for their films. Johnson points out that Marvel will still receive a percentage of each ticket sold to the licensed film regardless of how much that particular studio needed or intended to have to turn into profit (Johnson, 96). Franchising is a great business strategy as long as the business puts their money in the right place with the right distributors or franchisees. A franchisee is the most important partner to a franchiser because they must trust in their abilities to make business of their ideas or narratives.

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Works Cited

Johnson, Derek. Media Franchising: Creative License and Collaboration in the Culture Industries.New York University Press: New York. 2013. Print.

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Movie Marketing and Product Placement


Movie marketing is one of the many important steps in the movie business that must always be taken seriously. Movie marketing is one of the many important steps in the movie business that must always be taken seriously. Robert Marich talks about the subject of movie marketing in his book, Marich’s Marketing to Moviegoers: A Handbook of Strategies and Tactics, and he reveals some interesting truths about it. One of the interesting facts that Marich brings up are the “rates paid by for a trailer or television commercial campaign run from $25,000 (for independents) to $250,000 (for studio films)” (Marich, 13). Many students of film studies probably comprehend the technical and physical work that goes into creating a film project, but they are some who do not realize the amount of money and skill that is needed to promote a particular film project. Some filmmakers may be overwhelmed or self-discouraged to make a film project because they either cannot comprehend the tactics of marketing films or they do know it and are overwhelmed by the process. During my last semester I took two business related classes so I can understand some economics and tactics that I could use in the future if I get into the filmmaking business. There is so much to learn about movie marketing and an interesting fact is that Hollywood didn’t always stress on movie marketing. The question is what made Hollywood care about marketing? Marich mentions how movie marketing wasn’t always so significant to Hollywood film projects because they did not have any or much competition that was taking away moviegoers (Marich, 4). Marich says that“film-advertising expenses soaring and competition for moviegoers on the rise—just look at how young males are consumed by video games—marketing is now top of mind in the film business” (Marich, 4). With more competition enforces larger budgets on advertising which is the general nature of marketing.


One of the most interesting factors of movie marketing that Marich mentions is how movie marketing has impact on other industries (Marich, 4-5). I was familiar with the news of certain or many non-film related industries that look for economic benefit from film studio projects, but I didn’t always pay much to the concept of product placement. In the Transformers movies there is a very noticeable amount of product placement throughout the film and even though the products may not be related to the film plot they are clearly for advertisement (Marich, 148-9). Below is an example of how the first Transformers (2007) movie contains product placement:

The Transformers movies have been the prime example of product placement and there is an interesting article on one of the movies later sequels, Transformers 3: Dark of the Moon (2011),known as Transformers: The Rise Of Chinese Product Placement. This article talks about how the movie Transformers movies have a popular Chinese fan base and that marketing managers are taking advantage of the popular Chinese fan base through product placement. Marich says “the tie-in promotion and product placement fields are becoming increasingly sophisticated as movie marketers and their consumer-goods partners expand the scope of their alliances and contractually specify responsibilities of each party” (Marich, 147). Popular films can be one of the most marketable grounds for product placement and Marich is aware of this as he states how theTransformers movies are filled with product placement along with the Marvel Studios film Thor (2011) (Marich, 147-8). Marvel Studios and Paramount Pictures were working together on the release of Thor and they had multiple promotion partners such as Dr. Pepper, Honda and 7-eleven (Marich, 148). These partners all promoted the release of Thor within their own events that were at the same time selling their products in addition to promoting the movie Thor. Dr. Pepper had plastered movie content of Thor on its beverage packaging and this is an example of the partnership Dr. Pepper had with Marvel Studios and Paramount (Marich, 148). This is similar to how Burger King and McDonald’s would package toys in kid’s meal’s to promote a particular film or even a TV show. Burger King and McDonald’s are reliable sources that promoted films that were mostly kid’s movies because much of the youth today are actively involved at these fast-food joints.


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The Affect of Digital Media & Streaming

I remember there was a time where I would only use the computer for class assignments that were required to be typed in Microsoft Word and then I would end up spending most of my time watching TV. Later on this did not continue as I started spending more time on the computer watching things that I would normally watch on TV only. Wheeler Dixon in his book Streaming: Movies, Media and Instant Access talks about streaming and how the internet and certain websites are keeping people addicted to staying online in preference to watching television or doing other things like interacting face-to-face. Wheeler Dixon sums up the comparison of today’s digital world to traditional media almost perfectly when he says that “reading a book or listening to a CD or watching a movie is similar to being online and that for the duration of those experiences, you aren’t here, either. But those experiences have limits, whereas the goal of Facebook and all its allies is to get you online and keep you online—forever…” (Dixon, 90). Dixon talks about how a man named Scott Adams said one day technology will “manipulate us” and it is a fact since smartphones and computers already do it by providing us access to streaming, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and sports (Dixon, 90-91). I would have to disagree with Dixon when he says “technology can fill the emotional void” because even though I am a victim to the digital world I still use Facebook and my other phone apps to interact with my friends. Maybe smartphones and computers shorten social interaction physically and that is important when it comes to making more friends or meeting people. In Dixon’s book he even points out statistics of how technology affects socializing today and here they are:

• Seventy-five percent of conversations in the United States (and even more in other countries) still happen face-to-face; less than 10 percent take place through the Internet.

• Face-to-face conversations tend to be more positive and more likely to be perceived as credible, in comparison to online ones.

• In the sphere of products and services, conversations are significantly impacted by what we see and hear in “traditional” media, including television, radio, and print publishing. (Keller and Fay)

(Dixon, 91)

Digital media does affect social interaction physically, but not as drastically as Dixon fears. Communication is just one factor affected by the Internet; however it is in company with other assets people tend to use in their daily lives. Dixon makes use of this great quote by Towner on assets that are affected by the rise of digital media:

“Home telephones will be replaced by ‘mini computers the size of all phones,’ as landlines are discontinued. ‘CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays, thumb drives, video game discs. . . and their players’ will become obsolete as music, movies, games, and text are streamed directly from the web. Other items on the way out include business cards, conventional road maps, cash, analog clocks, phone books, bank deposit slips, and incandescent lightbulbs” (Dixon, 13).

Teaching has even evolved through the use of digital media and an example of that is that many teachers will now have students submit papers, homework assignments and take-home exams electronically online. This allows students and teachers to save paper which is a positive for the environment and a perfect example of how digital technology is good for the world.


Streaming has been on pace to be a part of what people do in almost every aspect now and not just for films, television shows and sports games. Dixon talks about how the “world can be streamed” with the use of Google glasses and he stated that now people can “view the world from a privileged point of view with a wealth of superimposed information” (Dixon, 130). Steaming has presented a solution to entertain almost every human need that is important for someone to get through their day. Google glasses can record video, give access to your location at all times and many other features that a smartphone does (Dixon, 131). Soon people won’t even need computers and instead they will use small tablets or utilize their smartphones more. Just like watching TV channels, going to blockbuster and using home phones is declining soon streaming will present an opportunity for more things to decline such as using a computer.

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The Greatness of Digital Visual Effects

Visual effects are a big part of films today and have more significance to films than people tend to realize. One person that talks about this topic is Stephen Prince in his book called Digital Visual Effects In Cinema. Prince says “I will have much to say about the compatibility of visual effects with cinematic realism. Indeed, in numerous ways visual effects provide filmmakers with avenues toward realism, provided the category of realism is expanded from the precondition of live-action filming and image spaces that are created and treated holistically” (Prince, 2). Prince talks about films using special effects to create “imaginary worlds” and certain movies that show that is theLord of the Rings trilogy. The battle of middle Earth is something that has been greatly assisted by special effects and before the Peter Jackson Lord of the Rings films this fictitious battle readers of the Lord of the Rings novels would have to use their minds to create an image of how this battle would be. Prince talks about how “narrative cinema has rarely respected unity of space as a basis for realism—except in the constructed manner achieved by such devices as continuity editing and selective framing with the camera” (Prince, 52). Just the way a filmmaker can make utilize special effects and editing can allow a fiction film or a Science-fiction film seem somewhat real.


Peter Jackson with his usage of one particular character in the Lord of the Rings known as Gollum makes the audience feel at times like they are watching two characters because of his counterpart Smeagol. Prince talks about the character Gollum and his series of soliloquies that occur throughout the Lord of the Rings films. Prince mentions how “Jackson films some within a single take, while covering others by cutting between the dueling personalities as if they were two separate beings… uses shot-reverse-shot cutting to separate them, and the alternating compositions serve to emphasize the difference in eye and facial animation” (Prince, 132). It is amazing how Jackson did some of the Gollum and Smeagol sequences in one single take, especially since both of them make very different facial expressions throughout the films. One has to appreciate how good the soliloquies were done since “most of the soliloquy is filmed in extreme close-up, it is wholly dependent on the quality and conviction of the digital performance” (Prince, 133). This is when we as moviegoers or critiques can appreciate the greatness of special effects and their wide range of flexibility in key story plot roles within films like Lord of the Rings. “Gollum is the trilogy’s most memorable creation, the one that arguably affects audiences most deeply. Visual effects artists, as well, were impressed” (Prince, 134). The effort put into maximizing the full potential of the available special effects for a film truly pay off when the fans of the film truly show appreciation for the sequences of where these effects were used like for Gollum.

Peter Jackson’s films make such excellent use of special effects and the scene above From King Kong (2005) is a perfect example of it. I would never imagine how much effort was put into making the scene where King Kong fights the T-Rex’s after reading what Prince reveals about what went into this scene. “Its elements were composed of Watts as the live-action element filmed against bluescreen, Kong and the T-Rex as CG elements, CG foliage in the foreground, and a digital matte painting representing the distant mountains” (Prince, 64). What’s interesting is as Watts was shot on bluescreen, the CG characters and environment hadn’t been built yet and the lighting on Watts seemed to have failed to pair with “what was subsequently created for the CG elements” due to lighting (Prince, 64). The solution found was to relight Watts as a digital figure and this is common with special effects (Prince, 65). A similar solution was applied in a scene from Lord of the Rings the Two Towers (2002) when Gandalf arrives at the battle of Helms Deep. He is seen marching down a hill with the army of Rohan behind him and in the making of the film they reveal that the Gandalf figure leading the army is digitized and the real Ian Murray McKellen wasn’t in the entire scene.


Prince, Stephen. Digital Visual Effects in Cinema: The Seduction of Reality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2012. Print.

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The Craziness of Fans

Fans or fandom is something that is has been changing over the years as it is one of the most important factors surrounding any film, TV show, sports entertainment, celebrities etc. Katherine Larsen and Lynn S. Zubernis talk about fandom in their book FANGASM: SUPERNATURAL FANGIRLSand they have many unique examples. One example they talk about are science fiction series like the Star Trek series and the Star Wars series and how their fans tend to be. One big question that comes to mind when talking about fandom is how to tell if someone is a fan of some particular TV show, movie or sports team? Another question is how can fans of any TV show, movie or sports team determine if another person is a fan of what they like? Larsen and Zubernis talk about how fans of similar interests can all have similar tendencies and they go on to talk about how “fans of a television show, especially one that falls within the sci-fi genre, are often viewed as a disquieting breed apart” (Larsen & Zubernis, 2). I wish the part of the title of the book wasn’t just “Supernatural Fangirls” because when reading this book it does talk about interesting qualities that fans of any gender tend to share in common and I feel like just the title’s initial part “Fangasm” alone was good enough. Anyways, reflecting back on fan tendencies of a particular genre of television, Larsen and Zubernis early in their book talk about fanatics of a particular TV show having similar personality traits (Larsen & Zubernis 3-4).


It is fact that fans of science fiction such as Star Wars or Star Trek are different from fans of soap operas like Ugly Betty. People will question this statement saying “what you mean fans of science fiction is different from the fan base of soap operas” or “what specific aspects are different within fans of sci-fi or soap operas?” People will even question if the statement makes sense if these questions are not initially answered and the answer is simply too look at the personality of the different fans, how they follow their science fiction show or movie or a soap opera, and what do fans of science fiction or soap operas tend to debate about whether its face-to-face interaction within peers, social networks or blogs. Many fans of entertainment tend to fantasize a possible future occurrence that could likely or unlikely happen and they even discuss this with their peers which is completely normal as I have done it among my peers. These future occurrences can be anything for example in films of action it can be two lead characters from different films crossing over or in sports it can be two or three star athletes coming together on the same team. Larsen and Zubernis give a very strange example in their book whereas “there are at least as many Supernatural fans who like to fantasize about the two lead actors getting it on as there are fans who are scandalized by that sort of fantasy” (Larsen & Zubernis, 102). Fans can fantasize about anything and they shouldn’t be judged badly for it because there just showing in one way how interested they are in a particular movie or series, TV show, sports team or a particular professional athlete.


Many times fans are very strange when it comes to obsession with particular celebrities whether it’s a professional actor or actress or athlete. People are also quick to judge these celebrities especially when they see them in public. Larsen and Zubernis give an example when they talk about people that “write on IMDB that they met someone in an elevator and he’s a prick. And maybe that person just got some bad news about their sixteen-year-old or something, you really don’t know…” and this reminds me of a similar experience (Larsen & Zubernis, 150). My brother and I met an NBA basketball player, Jason Terry, at the New England Baptist Church Hospital when I was getting surgery for my torn ACL and I called out his name and he just waved back and didn’t say anything despite how excited my brother and I were. I didn’t judge him and rant on Twitter about him because I know he only knows me to be a fan like many other people so he’s going to approach me the same way as any other fan that recognizes him. They are crazy fans that stock their favorite celebrities on Twitter and Instagram. An example of a crazy fan that Larsen and Zubernis share is of a fangirl that tries to throw herself on famous actor Jensen Ackles (Larsen & Zubernis, 29-30). The crazy fangirl was attempting to kiss Jenson Ackles and security had to come in and stop her (Larsen & Zubernis, 29-30). Girls of course are not the only ones capable of being crazy fans as in the video below a crazy male fan at a Cleveland Cavaliers game tries to confront NBA player Kyrie Irving during his team’s game against the Los Angeles Clippers in attempt to convince him to stay in Cleveland.

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The Severity of Impact from Measuring Spreadable Media

Media today that’s spreadable allows for greater impact from people outside or unrelated to the production staff of any particular kind of media. This is fact with all the different kinds of access people have through online media sources and how they are encouraged to have a presence felt for content creators to react too (Jenkins, Ford & Green, 2). Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford and Joshua Green in their book Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture talk about spreadable media and how it helps companies online and not just the audience, consumer, fan or any sort of spectator to a content creator. Jenkins Ford and Green state that their “use of ‘spreadability’ is perhaps most elective as a corrective to the ways in which the concept of ‘stickiness’ has developed over time to measure success in online commerce” (Jenkins, Ford & Green, 4). The number of people that are being attracted towards checking out and spending time on a particular website is a step to attaining stickiness and when the companies behind that website are able to see how many people have visited, how many views and how long visitors have spent viewing determines the stickiness Jenkins, Ford & Green, 4-5). Being able to see who visits your website and what they view and how long they stay there is an excellent privilege to have for any company running a business.

online bus

For any online business attempting to fulfill the concept of “stickiness” that Jenkins, Ford and Green talk about are on a good path to success in the business competition that exists online. The reason why is primarily because they know what their consumers want and what they need to do to continue to satisfy them in order for them to continue to spend time on their website. Online media access and new technology has given advertisers more advantages of how their material can be watched. Some people tend to run into advertisements not just through television as advertisements nowadays can be watched online and on mobile devices, but it also costs advertisers money to have their advertisements available in other places other than television (Jenkins, Ford & Green, 120). The reason why it is tough for some companies to have advertisements available on mobile devices, on-demand and online is because it is tough to track how many people watched them as Jenkins, Ford and Green have pointed out. This can also take away from the profit of the material being advertised brings in, which can question the effectiveness of advertising beyond the platform of television. Jenkins, Ford and Green focus much on how effective an online presence can be for an audience in terms of seeing interest in commodities. Jenkins, Ford and Green explain that “while a consistent business model has not yet been built for online video-sharing platforms, these practices provide media measurement companies a greater chance to directly capture and value audiences as commodity” (Jenkins, Ford & Green, 127). The biggest challenge seems to be the consistency of a business model that can measure views of an audience or potential interested consumers.


Businesses are not the only thing that are effected by participatory online communities as our television programs and this is also what Jenkins, Ford and Green primarily focus on. However, including strictly the business aspect of how the online communities help decide what companies should provide to people is important, but it is also important to talk about how an audience affects the product they are watching or experiencing. With the concept of “multipliers” audience members have greater value acquired through their activities (Jenkins, Ford & Green, 125). This is how non cannon stories are created within television series and even characters are kept alive for longer time-frames than the author or content creators may have originally intended. An example of this could be the extended series afterDragon Ball Z, Dragon Ball GT, and other extensions made just to please fans and make money. Sometimes these extensions may not even be cannon to the story, but the survival of a television program is determined by satisfying these “multipliers” and the online fan community demands. Even on forums other fans can see what the majority of the digital fan base prefers or would be willing to pay to see, which takes away from the originality of a television series.

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Works Cited

Jenkins, Henry. Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York University Press, New York: 2013. Print.

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The Evolution of the Entertainment Industry


It is quite remarkable how the entertainment industry has evolved over the years as time has passed from decade to decade. Films are now at our fingertips with online streaming sites such as Netflix, Hulu, Amazon Video and Xfinity. Broadcast has also evolved as well as they are even channels that show films on a regular basis like FX or TNT. Going to the movie theater is still a tradition that has not died and is the primary legal source for newly released films. The point I am trying to make is that the evolution of the entertainment industry has changed significantly over the years that going to the movie theater isn’t the only source of enjoying films. There was a time believe or not when cable, film and broadcast were separate and they were competitors. Ted Turner was one of the first people in the industry that brought cable, film and broadcast together during the 1980s (Holt, 1)). Nowadays you see cable, film and broadcast endorsing each other in their own different alternatives to show that they are working together. Examples of how this can be seen with cable is that during commercial break many of the commercials they are showing are for new upcoming films from different entertainment industries. Cable and broadcast channels also show commercials promoting each other. Even films promote cable or broadcast channels with scenes in the film showing those channels in their story plots or any other alternative way. Most cases films help cable is by allowing them to show their films on their channels after they have aired it in theaters and obviously for broadcast they pay them to show their trailers during commercial break.

Jennifer Holt’s Empires of Entertainment tells the story of how markets from different entertainment industries control other markets for their own benefit. In the 1970s broadcast and film industries were both on their heels with the threat of the cable industry on the rise (Holt, 22). During the 1970s “broadcast networks and film studios were not allowed to own one another, and broadcast networks were also prohibited from owning cable systems” (Holt, 22). Today many cable systems promote films and get paid from film studies but in the 1970s this clearly wasn’t the case which is exactly why film studios felt threatened by cable industries. In the mid-1970s cable had finally got a break from the strict policies that have only gotten stricter over that decade (Holt, 22). Once “political roadblocks related to satellite competition were removed would also be removed, changing cable’s outlook and options dramatically” (Holt, 23). Everything from what had made cable industries more threatening to film and broadcast was that “everything from restricting the programs that pay-television networks were allowed to carry, to preventing the use of satellites and limiting licenses was reexamined with the goal to increase competition in the industry” (Holt, 22). Later on the Communications Act of 1934 was amended and then the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 came to pass. Holt mentioned how it “represented a major shift in regulatory policy toward the cable industry vis-avis broadcasters” (Holt, 67). Film studios would continue to work with more cable industries, broadcast networks and then comes the media distributors.

Blockbuster was a big distributor of films and TV shows that were aired on cable networks and they were successful for a long time since 1985 when it was founded until late 2000’s (“BLOCKBUSTER’S ENTERTAINMENT STORE!”). It was mainly popular because it allowed customers to rent movie physical copies instead of paying more money to own it, especially if it’s a film you only buy once. Obviously as said earlier Netflix came around which allowed you to directly obtain physical copies of films or TV shows online or watch them digitally online which was something Blockbuster didn’t have. No one would have to leave their house to rent movies and then before Netflix there was also movies On-Demand from Comcast and Verizon. With all that being said over the last few decades the entertainment industry in all aspects and forms have tended to evolve providing every generation with the best entertainment with new installments. 

“BLOCKBUSTER’S ENTERTAINMENT STORE!”website home pageWayback Machine. 1996-12-24. Retrieved 2013-11-07. “Blockbuster name, design and related marks are trademarks of Blockbuster Entertainment Inc. © 1987, 1996 Blockbuster Entertainment Inc. All Rights Reserved. Developed by Blockbuster Technology – Online Group and Viacom Interactive Services.”

Holt, Jennifer. Empires of entertainment media industries and the politics of deregulation, 1980-1996. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press, 2011. Print.

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